Efectos de la pandemia por COVID – 19 en la salud mental de trabajadores sanitarios del estado Mérida, Venezuela.
Effects of COVID-19 pandemic in mental health on sanitary workers of Mérida state, Venezuela.

Fabiola Martínez, Mejer Azkoul, Catherine Rangel, Ignacio Sandia, Stefany Pinto

Resumen


La pandemia causada por el SARS-CoV-2 no solo ha afectado la salud física de millones de personas, sino que también afecta la salud mental de la población, en especial, del personal de salud de primera línea. Sin embargo, existe poca información al respecto, por lo que se planteó evaluar los efectos de la pandemia por COVID-19 en la salud mental del personal de salud del estado Mérida, Venezuela. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional de tipo descriptivo y corte transversal, donde se aplicó la escala DASS-21 a 150 individuos pertenecientes al personal sanitario del estado Mérida, Venezuela. Resultados: De los encuestados, el 34.7% presentó estrés, 33.3% ansiedad y el 34.6% mostró signos de depresión en sus diferentes niveles. Se determinó que un 42.7% atiende en áreas de cuidado de pacientes COVID-19, siendo los cargos de médico residente y enfermero los que presentaron incrementos notables en las variables emocionales estudiadas. Conclusión: Como consecuencia de la pandemia, se han incrementado las exigencias para la práctica médica, resultando en mayores índices de estrés, ansiedad y depresión en el personal sanitario encargado de enfrentarla. Es por ello que, se debe enfatizar la importancia de abordar a estos individuos con el fin de evaluar el estatus de la salud mental, y en los casos necesarios, proporcionar una terapéutica adecuada de la mano de psiquiatras y psicólogos para garantizar la integridad de quienes representan la primera línea de defensa contra esta nueva enfermedad.

The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has not only affected the physical health of millions of people, but also affects the mental health of the population, especially front-line health personnel. However, there is a large information gap in this regard, which is why it was proposed to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of health personnel in the state of Mérida, Venezuela. Method: This is a descriptive and cross-sectional observational study, where the DASS-21 scale was applied to 150 individuals belonging to the health personnel of Mérida State, Venezuela. Results: Among those surveyed, 34.7% presented stress, 33.3% anxiety and 34.6% showed signs of depression, at different levels. It was determined that 42.7% of all participants were working in areas intended for care of COVID-19 patients, and those who have the positions of resident doctors and nurses, presented notable increases in the levels of the emotional variables studied. Conclusion: As a consequence of the pandemic, the demands for the medical practice increased, resulting in higher rates of stress, anxiety and depression in the health personnel who are responsible for dealing with it. For this reason, the importance of approaching these individuals in order to evaluate the status of mental health should be emphasized, and, if it is necessary, provide adequate therapy from the hand of psychiatrists and psychologists to ensure the integrity of those who represent the first line of defense against this new disease.


Palabras clave


Coronavirus; Salud mental; Estrés; Ansiedad; Depresión. Coronavirus; Mental health; Stress; Anxiety; Depression.

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