Preferencias de los padres/madres y cuidadores de niños con trastornos del espectro autista sobre las técnicas de manejo conductual en la consulta odontológica

María Colina, Jesús Alberto Coronado

Resumen


Al analizar las preferencias de los padres/madres y cuidadores de niños con TEA respecto del uso de técnicas de manejo conductual en la atención odontológica de sus hijos. Es un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, de diseño transversal. La muestra está constituida por los padres/madres y cuidadores de niños con TEA que completaron voluntariamente un cuestionario en línea. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadísticas descriptivas para referir las características demográficas y socioeconómicas de los padres/madres y cuidadores e identificar sus preferencias sobre el manejo conductual de sus hijos en la consulta odontológica. Están de acuerdo con que previo a la consulta se generen las condiciones para que los niños cooperen con la realización de los procedimientos. Prefieren el uso de técnicas básicas de orientación conductual, como la adecuación del consultorio a las necesidades del niño con TEA, decir-mostrar-hacer, la pedagogía visual, el refuerzo positivo y el control de voz. En cambio, la inmovilización (estabilización protectora), la anestesia general y la sedación fueron las técnicas que prefieren que no se utilicen en la consulta odontológica. Los padres/madres y cuidadores de niños con TEA prefieren que se usen de forma combinada técnicas básicas de orientación conductual en la consulta odontológica y están en desacuerdo con el uso de técnicas avanzadas de orientación conductual en dicha consulta.


Recibido 18/01/2022
Aprobado: 25/02/2022


Palabras clave


Autismo; trastorno del espectro autista; cuidado odontológico de discapacitados; conocimientos; actitudes y práctica de salud bucal; padres; cuidadores

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Referencias


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