La actividad física en el contexto de aislamiento social por COVID-19
Physical activity in the context of social isolation by COVID-19

Sergio Bravo-Cucci, Heidi Kosakowski, Rodrigo Núñez-Cortés, Claudia Sánchez-Huamash, Jonatan Ascarruz-Asencios

Resumen


La pandemia por COVID-19 ha generado que miles de millones de personas se encuentren en condiciones de distancia social, aislamiento o cuarentena, a nivel mundial. El acatamiento de estas medidas trae consigo problemas de salud pública, relacionados con la disminución de la actividad física, el aumento del sedentarismo y un impacto psicológico asociado al estado de incertidumbre. Esta revisión tuvo como objetivo conocer, analizar y recomendar medidas sobre la actividad física y la salud en el contexto de aislamiento social producido por la COVID-19. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura científica en Pubmed, Proquest, Web of Science y EbscoHost. Se encontró evidencia exhaustiva que respalda los beneficios de la actividad física, como una mejora de la condición física, impactos positivos en la calidad de vida, disminución de síntomas de ansiedad y reducción de la morbimortalidad y discapacidad asociada a enfermedades no transmisibles. El contexto de aislamiento social por COVID-19 tiende a aumentar la probabilidad de adquirir estilos de vida no saludables, como la presencia de inactividad física y el aumento de la conducta sedentaria, lo que podría incrementar el riesgo de padecer enfermedades no transmisibles a largo plazo y traer consecuencias negativas para la salud frente a la pandemia de la COVID-19. Se recomienda elevar los niveles de actividad física en el aislamiento social, adoptando nuevas estrategias que promuevan la actividad física al contexto actual. Futuras investigaciones deben focalizarse en el diseño de nuevas intervenciones dirigidas al hogar.

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated billions of people in conditions of social distance, isolation or quarantine, worldwide. Compliance with these measures brings with it public health problems related to decrease physical activity, the increasing of sedentary lifestyle and a psychological impact associated with the state of uncertainty. This review aimed to know, analyze and recommend measures on physical activity and health in the context of social isolation produced by COVID-19. A narrative review of the scientific literature was carried out in Pubmed, Proquest, Web of Science and EbscoHost. Exhaustive evidence was found that supports the benefits of physical activity, such as an improvement in physical condition, positive impacts on quality of life, reduction of anxiety symptoms and reduction of morbidity and mortality and disability associated with non-communicable diseases. The context of social isolation by COVID-19 tends to increase the probability of acquiring unhealthy lifestyles, such as the presence of physical inactivity and increased sedentary behavior, which could increase the risk of suffering non-communicable diseases in the long term and bring negative consequences for health in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is recommended to raise the levels of physical activity in social isolation, adopting new strategies that promote physical activity in the current context. Future research should focus on the design of new interventions aimed at the home.


Palabras clave


Ejercicio; COVID-19; Cuarentena; Aislamiento; Pandemias, Exercise; COVID-19; Quarantine; Isolation; Pandemics

Texto completo:

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Referencias


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