Virus respiratorios. Principales vías de transmisión entre humanos y grado de infectividad
Respiratory viruses. Main routes of transmission between humans and degree of infectivity

Diana Callejas, Jazmín Anzules, Johan Urdaneta, Johanna Sánchez

Resumen


Los virus respiratorios constituyen una de las principales causas de enfermedad en los huéspedes humanos. Están asociados a patologías que pueden ser leves, y por ende, susceptibles a terapia como a enfermedades severas que terminan en la muerte del paciente. El objetivo de esta revisión fue describir las vías de transmisión y la infectividad de los virus respiratorios. Se realizó un estudio documental, donde se recopiló información del tema en las bases de datos PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo y MEDLINE. La manera como los virus respiratorios se transmiten de un huésped a otro varía. Las principales vías son la del contacto con zonas infectadas y la exposición a gotas de fluidos procedentes de huéspedes infectados. También se han reportado las vías de los aerosoles y de la contaminación inicial vía fecal-oral. En conclusión, debido a la alta infectividad de los virus respiratorios, estos se diseminan rápida y extensamente entre los huéspedes originando la enfermedad en grados que varía de leve a severa.

Respiratory viruses are one of the main causes of disease in human hosts. They are associated with pathologies that can be mild, and therefore, susceptible to therapy, as well as severe diseases that end in the death of the patient. The objective of this review was to describe the transmission routes and infectivity of respiratory viruses. An investigative, retrospective, and documentary study was carried out, where information on the subject was collected in the PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo and MEDLINE databases. The way respiratory viruses are transmitted from one host to another varies. The main routes are contact with infected areas and exposure to fluid droplets from infected hosts. Aerosol routes and initial fecal-oral contamination have also been reported. In conclusion, due to the high infectivity of respiratory viruses, they spread rapidly and extensively among hosts causing disease ranging from mild to severe.


Palabras clave


enfermedades respiratorias; patogenicidad; virulencia; transmisión de enfermedad infecciosa. respiratory tract diseases; pathogenicity; virulence; disease transmission infectious.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Allander, T., Tammi, M. T., Eriksson, M., Bjerkner, A., Tiveljung-Lindell, A., y Andersson, B. (2005). Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(36), 12891–12896. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0504666102

Anderson, R. M., Fraser, C., Ghani, A. C., Donnelly, C. A., Riley, S., Ferguson, N. M., Leung, G. M., Lam, T. H., y Hedley, A. J. (2004). Epidemiology, transmission dynamics and control of SARS: The 2002-2003 epidemic. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 359(1447), 1091–1105. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2004.1490

Aranda-Lozano, D. F., González-Parra, G. C., y Querales, J. (2013). Modelamiento de la transmisión del Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (VRS) en niños menores de cinco años. Revista de Salud Pública, 15(4), 637–647. https://www.scielosp.org/article/rsap/2013.v15n4/689-700/#ModalArticles

Avendaño, L. F., Palomino, M. A., y Larrañaga, C. (2003). Surveillance for respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for acute lower respiratory infection in Chile (1989 to 2000). Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 41(10), 4879–4882. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.41.10.4879-4882.2003

Avendaño, L., Larrañaga, C., Palomino, M., Gaggero, A., Montaldo, G., Suárez, M., y Díaz, A. (1991). Community- and hospital-acquired respiratory syncytial virus infections in Chile. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 10(8), 564–568. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-199108000-00003

Banerjee, A., Nasir, J. A., Budylowski, P., Yip, L., Aftanas, P., Christie, N., Ghalami, A., Baid, K., Raphenya, A. R., Hirota, J. A., Miller, M. S., McGeer, A. J., Ostrowski, M., Kozak, R. A., McArthur, A. G., Mossman, K., y Mubareka, S. (2020). Isolation, Sequence, Infectivity, and Replication Kinetics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 26(9), 2054–2063. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2609.201495

Borchers, A. T., Chang, C., Gershwin, M. E., y Gershwin, L. J. (2013). Respiratory syncytial virus-a comprehensive review. Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, 45(3), 331–379. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12016-013-8368-9

Branche, A. R., y Falsey, A. R. (2016). Parainfluenza Virus Infection. Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 37(4), 538–554. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1584798

Calvo, C., Pozo, F., García-García, M. L., Sanchez, M., López-Valero, M., Pérez-Breña, P., y Casas, I. (2010). Detection of new respiratory viruses in hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis: a three-year prospective study. Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992), 99(6), 883–887. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.01714.x

Cheong, H. Y., Lee, J. H., Kim, Y. B., Nam, H. S., Choi, Y. J., Kim, C. J. y Park, J. S. (2007). Viral Etiologic Agents in Acute Viral Lower Respiratory Tract Detected by Multiplex RT-PCR. Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease, PG-334-353, 334–353. https://pesquisa.bvsalud.org/portal/resource/pt/wpr-134799

Cowling, B. J., Ip, D. K., Fang, V. J., Suntarattiwong, P., Olsen, S. J., Levy, J., Uyeki, T. M., Leung, G. M., Peiris, J. S., Chotpitayasunondh, T., Nishiura, H. y Simmerman, J. M. (2013). Aerosol transmission is an important mode of influenza A virus spread. Nature Communications, 4, 1935. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2922

Eiros, J. M., Ortiz de Lejarazu, R., Tenorio, A., Casas, I., Pozo, F., Ruiz, G. y Pérez-Breña, P. (2009). Microbiological diagnosis of viral respiratory infections TT - Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones virales respiratorias. Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiología clínica, 27(3), 168–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2008.03.004

Ghasemi, Y., Makvandi, M., Samarbafzadeh, A. R., Nejati, A., Najafifard, S., Neisi, N., Rasti, M., Ahmadi, K., Shamsizadeh, A. y Nikfar, R. (2014). Serotype Determination of Adenoviruses in Children with Respiratory Infection. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 81(7), 639–643. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-013-1286-2

Gil Cuesta, J. y Vaqué Rafart, J. (2008). Aspectos básicos de la transmisibilidad. Vacunas, 9(1), 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1576-9887(08)71918-6

Global Burden of Disease. (2015). Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet, 385(9963), 117–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2

Greber, U. F. (2020). Adenoviruses – Infection, pathogenesis and therapy. FEBS Letters, 594(12), 1818–1827. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.13849

Griffiths, C., Drews, S. J., y Marchant, D. J. (2017). Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Infection, Detection, and New Options for Prevention and Treatment. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 30(1), 277–319. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00010-16

Harrison, A. G., Lin, T., y Wang, P. (2020). Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission and Pathogenesis. Trends in Immunology, 41(12), 1100–1115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2020.10.004

Hasöksüz, M., Kiliç, S. y Saraç, F. (2020). Coronaviruses and SARS-COV-2. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50(SI-1), 549–556. https://doi.org/10.3906/sag-2004-127

Hawke, K., van Driel, M. L., Buffington, B. J., McGuire, T. M., y King, D. (2018). Homeopathic medicinal products for preventing and treating acute respiratory tract infections in children. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 9(9), CD005974. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005974.pub5

Hayek, S., Dietz, P. M., Van Handel, M., Zhang, J., Shrestha, R. K., Huang, Y.-L. A., Wan, C., y Mermin, J. (2015). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Funding for HIV Testing Associated With Higher State Percentage of Persons Tested. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 21(6). https://journals.lww.com/jphmp/Fulltext/2015/11000/Centers_for_Disease_Control_and_Prevention_Funding.4.aspx

Jacobs, S. E., Lamson, D. M., St George, K. y Walsh, T. J. (2013). Human rhinoviruses. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 26(1), 135–162. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00077-12

Johnson, D. W. (2014). Croup. BMJ Clinical Evidence, 2014, 321. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25263284

Juozapaitis, M. y Antoniukas, L. (2007). Influenza virus. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 43(12), 919–929. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina43120119

Kim, J. K., Jeon, J. S., Kim, J. W. y Rheem, I. (2013). Epidemiology of respiratory viral infection using multiplex rt-PCR in Cheonan, Korea (2006-2010). Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 23(2), 267–273. https://doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1212.12050

Kutter, J. S., Spronken, M. I., Fraaij, P. L., Fouchier, R. A. y Herfst, S. (2018). Transmission routes of respiratory viruses among humans. Current Opinion in Virology, 28, 142–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coviro.2018.01.001

Leung, N. H., Chu, D. K., Shiu, E. Y., Chan, K. H., McDevitt, J. J., Hau, B. J., Yen, H. L., Li, Y., Ip, D. K., Peiris, J. S., Seto, W. H., Leung, G. M., Milton, D. K. y Cowling, B. J. (2020). Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks. Nature Medicine, 26(5), 676–680. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0843-2

Li, Q., Guan, X., Wu, P., Wang, X., Zhou, L., Tong, Y., Ren, R., Leung, K. S., Lau, E. H., Wong, J. Y., Xing, X., Xiang, N., Wu, Y., Li, C., Chen, Q., Li, D., Liu, T., Zhao, J., Liu, M., … Feng, Z. (2020). Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. The New England Journal of Medicine, 382(13), 1199–1207. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001316

Li, Y. T., Linster, M., Mendenhall, I. H., Su, Y. C. F. y Smith, G. J. (2019). Avian influenza viruses in humans: lessons from past outbreaks. British Medical Bulletin, 132(1), 81–95. https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz036

Lynch, J. P., Fishbein, M., y Echavarria, M. (2011). Adenovirus. Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 32(4), 494–511. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1283287

Nichols, W. G., Peck Campbell, A. J., y Boeckh, M. (2008). Respiratory viruses other than influenza virus: impact and therapeutic advances. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 21(2), 274–90, table of contents. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00045-07

Pereira, S. A., Florêncio, C. M., Marinheiro, J. C., Hársi, C. M., y Moura, F. E. (2016). Adenoviruses and acute respiratory infections in children living in an equatorial area of Brazil. Epidemiology and Infection, 144(2), 355–362. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268815000916

Pleschka, S. (2013). Overview of Influenza Viruses BT - Swine Influenza (J. A. Richt y R. J. Webby (eds.); pp. 1–20). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/82_2012_272

Ramezannia, Z., Sadeghi, J., Abdoli Oskouie, S., Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, M., Bannazadeh Baghi, H., Azadi, A. y Ahangar Oskouee, M. (2021). Evaluation of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 among Hospitalized Children in Northwest of Iran. The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology = Journal Canadien Des Maladies Infectieuses et de La Microbiologie Medicale, 2021, 2270307. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2270307

Taubenberger, J. K. y Morens, D. M. (2006). 1918 Influenza: the mother of all pandemics. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(1), 15–22. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1201.050979

Tellier, R. (2006). Review of aerosol transmission of influenza A virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(11), 1657–1662. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1211.060426

van den Hoogen, B. G., de Jong, J. C., Groen, J., Kuiken, T., de Groot, R., Fouchier, R. A. y Osterhaus, A. D. (2001). A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease. Nature Medicine, 7(6), 719–724. https://doi.org/10.1038/89098

van der Hoek, L., Pyrc, K., Jebbink, M. F., Vermeulen-Oost, W., Berkhout, R. J. M., Wolthers, K. C., Wertheim-van Dillen, P. M. E., Kaandorp, J., Spaargaren, J. y Berkhout, B. (2004). Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nature Medicine, 10(4), 368–373. https://doi.org/10.1038/nm1024

Vandini, S., Biagi, C., Fischer, M., y Lanari, M. (2019). Impact of Rhinovirus Infections in Children. Viruses, 11(6), 521. https://doi.org/10.3390/v11060521

Widders, A., Broom, A., y Broom, J. (2020). SARS-CoV-2: The viral shedding vs infectivity dilemma. Infection, Disease & Health, 25(3), 210–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idh.2020.05.002

Woo, P. C., Lau, S. K., Chu, C., Chan, K., Tsoi, H., Huang, Y., Wong, B. H., Poon, R. W., Cai, J. J., Luk, W., Poon, L. L., Wong, S. S., Guan, Y., Peiris, J. S. y Yuen, K. (2005). Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia. Journal of Virology, 79(2), 884–895. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.79.2.884-895.2005


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


 

Depósito Legal Electrónico: ME2016000090
ISSN Electrónico: 2610-797X

Se encuentra actualmente registrada y aceptada en las siguientes base de datos, directorios e índices: 

 
 
   
    
    

Creative Commons License
Todos los documentos publicados en esta revista se distribuyen bajo una
Licencia Creative Commons Atribución -No Comercial- Compartir Igual 4.0 Internacional.
Por lo que el envío, procesamiento y publicación de artículos en la revista es totalmente gratuito.