Virus respiratorios. Principales vías de transmisión entre humanos y grado de infectividad
Respiratory viruses. Main routes of transmission between humans and degree of infectivity

Diana Callejas, Jazmín Anzules, Johan Urdaneta, Johanna Sánchez


Los virus respiratorios constituyen una de las principales causas de enfermedad en los huéspedes humanos. Están asociados a patologías que pueden ser leves, y por ende, susceptibles a terapia como a enfermedades severas que terminan en la muerte del paciente. El objetivo de esta revisión fue describir las vías de transmisión y la infectividad de los virus respiratorios. Se realizó un estudio documental, donde se recopiló información del tema en las bases de datos PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo y MEDLINE. La manera como los virus respiratorios se transmiten de un huésped a otro varía. Las principales vías son la del contacto con zonas infectadas y la exposición a gotas de fluidos procedentes de huéspedes infectados. También se han reportado las vías de los aerosoles y de la contaminación inicial vía fecal-oral. En conclusión, debido a la alta infectividad de los virus respiratorios, estos se diseminan rápida y extensamente entre los huéspedes originando la enfermedad en grados que varía de leve a severa.

Respiratory viruses are one of the main causes of disease in human hosts. They are associated with pathologies that can be mild, and therefore, susceptible to therapy, as well as severe diseases that end in the death of the patient. The objective of this review was to describe the transmission routes and infectivity of respiratory viruses. An investigative, retrospective, and documentary study was carried out, where information on the subject was collected in the PubMed, Web of Science, Scielo and MEDLINE databases. The way respiratory viruses are transmitted from one host to another varies. The main routes are contact with infected areas and exposure to fluid droplets from infected hosts. Aerosol routes and initial fecal-oral contamination have also been reported. In conclusion, due to the high infectivity of respiratory viruses, they spread rapidly and extensively among hosts causing disease ranging from mild to severe.

Palabras clave

enfermedades respiratorias; patogenicidad; virulencia; transmisión de enfermedad infecciosa. respiratory tract diseases; pathogenicity; virulence; disease transmission infectious.

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