Incidencia de la lesión renal aguda por COVID-19: revisión sistemática.
Incidence of acute kidney injury by COVID-19: a systematic review

Geraldyne Ortiz, Carolina Madriz, Emperatriz Ortiz, Tomás Byrne

Resumen


El brote de COVID-19 se encuentra en pleno desarrollo a escala global, y apenas se ha iniciado la colocación de vacunas en algunos países. Es importante evaluar las posibles complicaciones de esta enfermedad, tal como la lesión renal aguda (LRA) que se asocia con alta tasa de mortalidad. La presente revisión sistematizada pretende cuantificar la incidencia de LRA por COVID-19 desde diciembre de 2019 hasta diciembre de 2020. Método: se realizó la búsqueda de serie de casos y estudios de cohortes en las bases de datos PubMed, Cochrane, LILACS, BVS y Science Direct, publicados entre diciembre de 2019 y diciembre de 2020. Se incluyeron estudios de pacientes mayores de 18 años, que presentaron LRA durante el periodo de enfermedad. Resultados: la incidencia de LRA en 17 cohortes de pacientes hospitalizados por COVID-19, mayores de 18 años fue de 35,1%. Nueve de estos estudios presentaron un desglose de la gravedad de la LRA según los estadios CKIDGO, resultando que el 43,47% estaba en estadio 1, el 21,05% estaba en estadio 2 y el 35,48% estaba en estadio 3. Conclusiones: la lesión renal aguda es una complicación frecuente en la enfermedad por COVID-19, pues presenta una incidencia importante que se incrementa con el estado de severidad del paciente. Se considera necesario el estudio de estas y otras complicaciones para guiar el manejo clínico y la disposición de los tratamientos con el fin de prevenir mayor morbimortalidad.

Introduction: The COVID-19 outbreak is in full swing on a global scale, and the introduction of vaccines has only just begun in some countries. It is important to evaluate the possible complications of this disease, such as acute kidney injury (AKI), which is associated with a high mortality rate. This systematic review aims to quantify the incidence of AKI by COVID-19 from december 2019 to december 2020. Method: a search of case series and cohort studies was carried out in the PubMed, Cochrane, LILACS, BVS and Science Direct databases, published between december 2019 and december 2020. They were included studies of patients with COVID-19, older than 18 years, who have presented acute kidney injury during the period of illness. Results: the incidence of AKI in 17 cohorts of patients hospitalized for COVID-19, older than 18 years was 35.1%. Nine of these studies presented a breakdown of AKI severity according to CKIDGO stages, resulting in 43.47% being stage 1, 21.05% stage 2, and 35.48% stage 3. Conclusions: acute kidney injury is a frequent complication in COVID-19 disease, as it has a significant incidence that increases with the severity of the patient. The study of these and other complications is considered necessary to guide clinical management and the provision of treatments in order to prevent greater morbidity and mortality.


Palabras clave


COVID-19; lesión renal aguda; SARS-CoV-2; nefrología. COVID-19; acute kidney injury; SARS-CoV-2; nephrology.

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